Roasting Coffee

Written by A.M.C.. Posted in Strong Stuff

Unlike the Ethiopians did 1200 years ago, the coffee we consume today is roasted. As a matter of fact, there are 10 different roasting styles to prepare the beans for your favourite beverage.

All of these result in different taste and are used for different drinks. The roast type is usually determined by the Celsius degree and amount of time it’s roasted.

The darker a coffee bean is roasted, the more it loses its original characteristics as well as caffeine. Therefore beans from famous areas are often roasted lightly to keep their unique flavour. The roasting time can vary between 3 to 30 minutes with heats ranging from 165°C up until 250°C.

Type of roast Roasting degree Characteristics Look
Raw coffee beans Not roasted This is what Ethiopians used to drink. Not much can be said besides that they can make goats dance and be stored up to 2 years.  Raw coffee beans
Arabian Coffee Between 165°C and 210°C Arabian Coffee is lightest form of roasting whereby the beans have a light brown colour. The bean loses water and increases in size. This is one of the most widely used types of roasting and is roasted at same temperatures as 3 other types of roasting as well.  Arabica roast coffee beans
Cinnamon Roast 195°C The coffee changed its colour to darker brown because of the reaction of sugars though mostly due to the Maillard Reaction. The flavours have light acidic tones.

 Cinnamon roast coffee beans

New England Roast 205°C This is where the first crack in the bean happens while the internal heat of the bean is around 180°C. The crack actually sounds something like a popcorn popping. The colour of the beans are still light brown. New England coffee beans 
American Roast 210°C At around this time the beans are still expanding and the cracks become more visible. It has a medium brown colour and is one of the most crucial moments during roasting. The beans will, at this moment, become endothermic. So if during roasting not enough heat is produced to roast the beans, the roasting will be stalled! American Roast coffee beans 
City Roast 220°C

Finally the forming of the first crack has stopped. The colour changed significantly and can be called dark brown. This is the point the beans are starting to give off carbon dioxide. This is the most commonly used type of roasting in the US and enables to taste the variety of the many flavours.

 City Roast coffee beans
Full City Roast 225°C The full city roasting is right before the second crack is going to happen. The coffee beans start looking oily. There isn’t much of a difference between this type of roasting and the City Roast.  Full city coffee beans
Vienna Roast 230°C Vienna roast is where the famed second crack will occur. The colour of the beans has become moderately dark brown. This is the type of roast where you’ll start finding the mix between “Origin Character” and “Roast Character”. Darker roasts will taste more like each other as they start to lose their distinctive flavour and characteristics. Vienna Roast is used for Espressos. Vienna roast coffee beans 
French Roast 240°C Some couple of decades ago, the French Roast was the lonesome King of the dark roasts. However as time has passed other roasts have joined its rank. The second crack is happening and very audible at this stage. The sugars within the beans have caramelised and the bean is starting to carbonise. It is a very popular type of roast used for Espressos. French roast coffee beans 
Italian Roast 245°C From the French Roast onward the process goes incredibly fast. The beans start to burn more, just like the taste, and acidity of the coffee is almost gone now.  Italian roast coffee beans
Spanish Roast 250°C The Spanish roast is the limit of any roast. It can now consist of almost 25% ash, and is mostly burnt and carbonised. Some call it even a dead bean as the charcoal and tar tones start dominating the flavour.  Spanish roast coffee beans
Fire Roast 258°C Well, at this stage the coffee is completely burned out and turned into charcoal. Friendly reminder that this cannot be consumed, normally. It is at the verge of spontaneous combustion and actually can be used to start a fire by dumping the coffee in a cooled tray. The sudden rush of oxygen will create a fire.  Burned coffee beans

 No Hanky Panky

Meet Henry Kalebjian, owner and master roaster of Henry’s blend at the House of Coffee. Henry is a true gentleman of the finest calibre. He enjoys his work and rigorously aims to perfect his roasts to reach out to his customers. Just watch, enjoy, and learn how a proper coffee roasting is carried out.

You can follow this geezer on Twitter and Facebook.

Check it out it's a Random Article!

Like this? Then check out these..